India’s population is increasing at a rapid rate year by year and it is forecasted that India will overtake China as the most populous nation in the world. Hence, agricultural production has to increase at a faster pace to support the growing population.
During the recent couple of decades, the global agricultural production has boomed and technology improvement is still adding to the development of yield. In spite of the population getting doubled, the production of the cereal crops has tripled during this particular period. This showed that the crop yield production is safe for the present needs.
One of the critical issues of the 21st century is Global Food Security, which is indivisible from human well-being. Improved variety of quality seeds (HYV seeds), technological advancements, quality fertilizers and improved farming practices are the factors that are adding to the enhancement of the global crop production.
But, on the other hand, population explosion, deforestation, water crisis, changing climate patterns, natural calamities etc can hinder the crop production. Since last century, climate extremes/changes has been on an upswing, posing a threat to the world. It is projected that recurrence and severity of climate extremes may keep on expanding. These climatic changes can also lead to water crisis and occurrence of natural calamities, which is also a threat to the future crop yield production.
Statistics reveal that the development in crop yields has levelled off and there also includes a huge risk of decline in future crop yields due to unsustainable food production practices and climate change.
In many countries, it may be implied that, the land area utilized for agricultural purposes has reached its maximum limits. So, for increasing the crop yield production, land has to be utilized efficiently. Increasing use of fertilizers and pesticides is leading to a situation of over exploitation of natural resources especially harming the soil and groundwater for agricultural purposes.
A system which focusses on conventional and indigenous methods of farming has to be implemented in order to address the issue of global food security. It includes agroforestry, water harvesting, polyculture, inter-cropping, crop rotations etc. In this way, the future crop yield can be secured safely and there will be tremendous growth in crop yields.